Scientific base of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model

Scientific base of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility…

Kuva, joka sisältää kohteen henkilö, mies, seinä, sisä

Kuvaus luotu automaattisesti


The teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model (Hellison, 1985, 2011) was originally developed by Don Hellison while working with low-income urban children in physical activity settings. Four themes represent the essence of TPSR: integrating responsibility into physical activity, empowering students, creating strong teacher–student relationship, and promoting transfer of responsibility (Hellison, 2011). The TPSR model and programmes based on it provide people with guidelines for and practice in taking responsibility for their personal development and well-being and contributing to the well-being of others. The goals and means of TPSR are in line with theories of social psychology, particularly self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), and sport pedagogy, such as the teaching styles spectrum (Mosston & Ashworth, 2008).

TPSR has been successfully implemented in many countries including Spain (Escartí, Gutiérrez, Pascual, & Marín, 2010), New Zealand (Gordon, 2010), Canada (Beaudoin, Brunelle, & Spallanzani, 2015), Turkey (Agbuga, Xiang, & McBride, 2015), Finland (Romar, Haag, & Dyson, 2015), and South Korea (Jung & Wright, 2012). Implementation of TPSR programmes has been shown to have positive behavioural, social, emotional, psychological, and educational outcomes (Pozo, Grao-Cruces, & Pérez-Ordás, 2018). In a recent study, TPSR was found relevant and acceptable approach to promoting youth development through sport in Belizean context (Wright, Jacobs, Ressler, & Howell, 2017). Especially, the TPSR teaching strategies were found easy to articulate and share with local coaches.

Research on TPSR-based after-school programmes have also indicated that many students are able to apply the values and behaviours promoted in the programme in a classroom setting (Martinek, Schilling & Johnson, 2001; Wright, Li, Ding, & Pickering, 2010; Walsh, Ozaeta & Wright, 2010). Gordon and Doyle (2015) highlighted the importance of continuously addressing the transfer of life skills during physical activity programmes. They suggested explaining the concepts of near and far transfer of learning to the participants and using carefully chosen examples and questions to assist in understanding new context and identifying similarities with earlier learning experiences. Nevertheless, further research is required to better understand and assess the process by which participants transfer learning from TPSR programmes to other areas of life (Wright, Jacobs, Howell, & Ressler, 2018).

In professional development programmes related to personal and social skills, research has shown the strength of implementation is often related to the quality of the training and ongoing support. Only after a systematic and rigorous assessment of coach training and implementation can we draw inferences about a programme’s effects on youth and communities (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011;  Penuel, Fishman, Yamaguchi, & Gallagher, 2007; Seligman, Ernst, Gillham, Reivich, & Linkins, 2009).


Agbuga, B., Xiang, P., & McBride, R. E. (2015). Relationship between achievement goals and students’ self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, 1-9.

Beaudoin, S., Brunelle, J. P., & Spallanzani, C. (2015). The journey of two physical education and health teachers in learning to teach personal and social responsibility. Revue PHEnex Journal, 7(2), 1-32.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta‐analysis of school‐based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405- 32.

Escartí, A., Gutiérrez, M., Pascual, C., & Marín. D. (2010). Application of Hellison’s teaching personal and social responsibility model in physical education to improve self-efficacy for adolescents at risk of dropping-out of school. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 667-76.

Gordon, B. (2010). An examination of the responsibility model in a New Zealand secondary school physical education program. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 29(1), 21-37.

Gordon, B., & Doyle, S. (2015). Teaching personal and social responsibility and transfer of learning: Opportunities and challenges for teachers and coaches. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 34, 152-161. DOI: 10.1123/jtpe.2013-0184

Hellison, D. (1985). Goals and strategies for teaching physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Hellison, D. (2011). Teaching personal and social responsibility through physical activity (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Jung, J., & Wright R. (2012). Application of Hellison’s responsibility model in South Korea: A multiple case study of “at-risk” middle school students in Physical Education. ÁGORA para la Educación Física y el Deporte, 14(2), 140-60.

Martinek T., Schilling T., & Johnson D. (2001). Transferring personal and social responsibility of underserved youth to the classroom. Urban Review, 33(1), 29-45.

Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2008). Teaching physical education (6th ed.). New York, NY: Benjamin Cummings.

Penuel, W. R., Fishman, B. J., Yamaguchi, R., & Gallagher, L. P. (2007). What makes professional development effective? Strategies that foster curriculum implementation. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), 921-958.

Pozo, P., Grao-Cruces, A., & Pérez-Ordás, R. (2018). Teaching personal and social responsibility model-based programmes in physical education: A systematic review. European Physical Education Review, 24(1), 56-75. doi: 10.1177/1356336X16664749

Romar, J. E., Haag, E., & Dyson, B. (2015). Teachers’ experiences of the TPSR model in Physical Education. Agora para la educación física y el deporte, 17(3), 202-19.

Seligman, M. E., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: Positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3), 293-311.

Walsh, D. S., Ozaeta, J., & Wright, P. M. (2010).Transference of responsibility model goals to the school environment: Exploring the impact of a coaching club program. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 15(1), 15-28.

Wright, P. M., Jacobs, J. M., Ressler, J. D., & Howell, S.H. (2017). The Belizean Youth Sport Coalition. In: Escherick C., Baker R., Jackson S., Sam, M. Case Studies in Sport for Diplomacy. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology, pp. 51-67.

Wright, P. M., Jacobs, J. M., Howell, S., & Ressler, J. D. (2018). Immediate outcomes and implementation of a sport for development coach education programme in Belize. Journal of Sport for Development, 6(10), 51-65.

Wright P. M., Li W., Ding S., & Pickering M. (2010). Integrating a personal and social responsibility program into a wellness course for urban high school students: Assessing implementation and educational outcomes. Sport, Education and Society, 15(3), 277-98.