The teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model (Hellison, 1985, 2011) was originally developed by Don Hellison while working with low-income urban children in physical activity settings. Four themes represent the essence of TPSR: integrating responsibility into physical activity, empowering students, creating strong teacher–student relationship, and promoting transfer of responsibility (Hellison, 2011). The TPSR model and programmes based on it provide people with guidelines for and practice in taking responsibility for their personal development and well-being and contributing to the well-being of others. The goals and means of TPSR are in line with theories of social psychology, particularly self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), and sport pedagogy, such as the teaching styles spectrum (Mosston & Ashworth, 2008).
TPSR has been successfully implemented in many countries including Spain (Escartí, Gutiérrez, Pascual, & Marín, 2010), New Zealand (Gordon, 2010), Canada (Beaudoin, Brunelle, & Spallanzani, 2015), Turkey (Agbuga, Xiang, & McBride, 2015), Finland (Romar, Haag, & Dyson, 2015), and South Korea (Jung & Wright, 2012). Implementation of TPSR programmes has been shown to have positive behavioural, social, emotional, psychological, and educational outcomes (Pozo, Grao-Cruces, & Pérez-Ordás, 2018). In a recent study, TPSR was found relevant and acceptable approach to promoting youth development through sport in Belizean context (Wright, Jacobs, Ressler, & Howell, 2017). Especially, the TPSR teaching strategies were found easy to articulate and share with local coaches.
Research on TPSR-based after-school programmes have also indicated that many students are able to apply the values and behaviours promoted in the programme in a classroom setting (Martinek, Schilling & Johnson, 2001; Wright, Li, Ding, & Pickering, 2010; Walsh, Ozaeta & Wright, 2010). Gordon and Doyle (2015) highlighted the importance of continuously addressing the transfer of life skills during physical activity programmes. They suggested explaining the concepts of near and far transfer of learning to the participants and using carefully chosen examples and questions to assist in understanding new context and identifying similarities with earlier learning experiences. Nevertheless, further research is required to better understand and assess the process by which participants transfer learning from TPSR programmes to other areas of life (Wright, Jacobs, Howell, & Ressler, 2018).
In professional development programmes related to personal and social skills, research has shown the strength of implementation is often related to the quality of the training and ongoing support. Only after a systematic and rigorous assessment of coach training and implementation can we draw inferences about a programme’s effects on youth and communities (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011; Penuel, Fishman, Yamaguchi, & Gallagher, 2007; Seligman, Ernst, Gillham, Reivich, & Linkins, 2009).
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Escartí, A., Gutiérrez, M., Pascual, C., & Marín. D. (2010). Application of Hellison’s teaching personal and social responsibility model in physical education to improve self-efficacy for adolescents at risk of dropping-out of school. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 667-76.
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